Studies of continental Antarctica typically described broad bioregions, with the Antarctic Peninsula usually identified as biologically distinct from continental Antarctica. To many Antarctica is one vast singular frozen place. Later studies suggested a more complex biogeography. In a new study published in “Diversity and Distributions” 15 distinct, ice-free, Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions have been identified, encompassing the frozen continent and close by off shore lying islands. These regions can be useful in protecting local species as development, exploration, or climate changes occur.